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King Arthur Flour's
Guide To Bread Machine Baking

Chapter 1: Introduction

Welcome to the wonderful world of bread machine baking! While you may be using a different method than your grandmother did, you're still doing the same thing that humans have done for centuries: combining flour, water and yeast to make bread.

Your bread machine can be your best friend in the kitchen. Just remember our first basic rule: Your bread machine is a robot and like a computer, the machine can only do what it's programmed to do. You have to do the thinking for it.

How do bread machines work? They're not complicated. Once you've put ingredients into the machine's pan and pressed START, the machine mixes the ingredients (pre-knead); kneads the dough (first knead); gives it a short rest (rest); kneads it again (second knead); lets it rise (first rise); knocks it down; lets it rise again (second rise); then bakes it (bake). Your machine has a motor that turns a paddle to knead the dough and a heating element to provide the warmth for rising and baking.

Each machine is programmed a little bit differently. Some knead the dough longer; some let it rise at a higher temperature, or for a longer period of time; some bake for a longer time at a lower temperature.

Remember to follow a recipe that is sized for your machine: either 1-pound, which the recipe may also call "small", or 1 1/2-lb. or larger, which may be called "large". Many people have asked for help in modifying 1 1/2-lb. bread machine recipes to fit their 1-pound bread machines. Simply cut all of the ingredients in a 1 1/2-lb. recipe by one-third (i.e., 3 cups of flour becomes 2 cups of flour). Yeast is an exception to this rule; use 1 teaspoon of yeast in a 1-pound bread machine recipe. Eggs are also an exception; instead, substitute a small egg for each large egg called for in the 1 1/2-lb. recipe (you should always use large eggs in your recipes, unless otherwise indicated).

We've found that often the manuals that come with bread machines can be confusing, and can contain incorrect information. For instance, one of the manuals we've read says that poorly risen bread may be caused by too little sugar in the recipe, when just the opposite is true. Too much sugar can cause a small, dense loaf. In addition, the recipe books that come with the machines are not foolproof; sometimes the recipes work, sometimes they don't. The best independent bread machine book we've found is "Bread Machine Baking -- Perfect Every Time", by Lora Brody, published by William Morrow. Each recipe includes slightly different versions for each of the major machines, including DAK, Welbilt, Maxim, Sanyo, Regal, Hitachi, Zojirushi and Panasonic/National.


Chapter 2: Let's Examine The Ingredients

The Yeast...

This basic ingredient is a living organism that eats and "breathes" just as we do. It's this breathing (actually, the process of fermentation) that gives off carbon dioxide gas, which is in turn trapped by the gluten in the flour, causing bread to rise.

Yeast is inactive in its dry form, but touch it with liquid and give it something to eat and it starts to work. That's why, in the bread machine, we make a practice of separating the yeast from the liquid with a barrier of flour. If you're going to put all of the ingredients into the pan and start it up right away, it doesn't matter in what order they go. But what if you want to use your machine's delayed cycle, where the bread won't be ready till tomorrow morning? You want the yeast to stay dry till your machine actually starts its cycle, so a general rule is to use the flour in your recipe to separate the yeast from the liquid.

Yeast likes to eat sugar, but doesn't like salt. It doesn't like extremes of temperature, and feels more comfortable in an acid environment. It also is prone to over-eating; too much sugar in a recipe, rather than boost the yeast to greater heights, will slow it down to a crawl.

Your machine will provide the draft-free environment yeast loves, neither too hot nor too cold. Many manuals suggest warming ingredients before putting them into the machine. Some machines have a pre-heating cycle, which does this for you. However, we've found that you can add ingredients right from the refrigerator, use cold tap water as well, and the dough will still rise just as successfully. The heat generated by the vigorous kneading raises the temperature of the dough sufficiently.

Yeast likes an acidic environment. Although the fermentation process naturally creates an acidic environment, to make yeast even happier, increase the dough's acidity a bit. You can do this by adding a pinch of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) or by replacing some of the liquid with an acidic liquid (a tablespoon of orange juice, lemon juice or vinegar). This is especially helpful when you're following a sweet bread recipe, one in which the yeast will be slowed down by a larger amount of sugar.

What kind of yeast should you use? Use a good quality active dry or instant yeast, preferably bought in bulk (which tends to be fresher, as well as much less expensive). We prefer using instant yeast; either regular instant or instant gold for all-purpose bread baking, or special instant for sourdough or sweet breads. Instant yeast is a stronger, faster-acting yeast that performs particularly well in bread machines.

We don't recommend rapid-rise yeast, as it goes against one of the tenets of good bread making: the longer the rise (and fermentation process), the better the flavor. As we mentioned before, this fermentation is creating acidity (or sourness) that, if carried to the extreme, would yield sourdough bread. Bread dough that rises quickly has no time to develop flavor, and will be noticeably inferior, in taste, to bread that is given a longer rising time. In other words: unless you are in a tremendous hurry, ignore the "rapid-bake" cycle on your machine!

The Sweeteners...

How much sugar should you use in your machine? If you don't have any dietary restrictions that preclude sugar entirely, we suggest 1 to 2 teaspoons. Although yeast makes its own food by converting the starch in flour into sugar, a little "fast-food fix" of pure sugar right at the start gives it the quick energy it needs to work. (If you need to avoid sugar, just leave it out; your bread will be just fine, although you may find it doesn't brown as well).

How about if you're making a sweet bread, one that requires sugar for flavoring? This is where you need to learn the nuances of your own machine. As a general rule, we've found that any more than 2 tablespoons of sugar per cup of flour will slow yeast down to the point where you can't make a nicely risen loaf in your machine, without making some other adjustments, such as increasing the amount of yeast, increasing the acidity of the environment, etc.

No one kind of sugar is better for you, nutritionally, than another kind. White sugar, light or dark brown sugar, corn syrup, molasses, honey, maple syrup, concentrated fruit syrup -- all are suitable for the bread machine, although the liquid sugars must be counted as a liquid when you're tracking your liquid/flour ratio. Don't use artificial sugar substitutes; they don't help the yeast, and we feel they give bread a strange flavor.

The Flour...

Flour is the basis of good bread, but many of the bread machine manuals give the reader poor information concerning flour. Be sure to use a good quality flour, one that is untreated with either bleach (powdered bleach belongs in your laundry, not your bread), or potassium bromate, a suspected carcinogen. Despite the fact that some machine recipe books call for bromated flour, it isn't necessary to the success of your bread, and also poses a health risk.

Be sure to use a flour made from hard wheat, which means it's high in protein, and therefore high in gluten. The gluten combines with water to form the elastic strands that trap carbon dioxide given off by yeast, allowing bread to rise. A flour high in gluten will produce a nicely risen loaf, while a low-gluten flour (such as pastry flour, cake flour or self-rising flour) will not. Most bread machine manuals and cookbooks call for bread flour rather than all-purpose flour. King Arthur Unbleached All-Purpose Flour, because it's higher in gluten than national brands of all-purpose flour, works perfectly in the bread machine.

King Arthur also makes an extra-strong bread flour, King Arthur Unbleached Special Bread Flour, which is especially good in sweet breads and breads containing whole grains, which may have difficulty rising sufficiently. Be aware, however, that the higher the protein level of the flour you use, the more liquid it will absorb; be sure to check your dough during the kneading cycle, and add more liquid if necessary. The proper consistency for your dough is a smooth, soft ball.

An interesting point: If you read the protein content on a bag of whole-wheat flour, it's actually higher than all-purpose flour. So why doesn't whole wheat bread rise sky high? Because the bran cuts the gluten strands as they form, rendering them useless, unable to trap the carbon dioxide being generated by the yeast. This is one of the reasons 100% whole-grain breads tend to be dense, rather than light.

So we've established that you want to use a good-quality, high-protein flour in your bread machine. But what about whole wheat bread? And pumpernickel? And New York rye? You can make wonderful whole-grain breads in most bread machines. But, keep in mind the fact that grains other than wheat -- rye, barley, buckwheat, amaranth, corn, rice, the whole array of grains and flours available to today's baker -- contain little or no gluten.

To make a successful bread machine loaf using these grains, you should "cut" them with some high-protein all-purpose or bread flour, to provide the gluten necessary for rising. You can also try adding some pure gluten to the mixture. Look for vital wheat gluten (not gluten flour) and for each cup of whole-grain flour used, put 1 tablespoon of gluten in the bottom of the measuring cup before filling with the flour.

When making whole-grain breads, we like to tell people to start with a mixture that is 1 cup whole grain flour, 2 cups all-purpose flour, then work from there. Gradually increase the whole grain and decrease the all-purpose, at the same time increasing the yeast a bit and perhaps adding gluten, till you get the combination of taste and texture you enjoy. (This is the part where some creative experimentation is involved.)

Here's an interesting point concerning whole-grain bread. Many people feel they have to eat only whole-grain bread to get any health benefits at all. This is simply untrue. All-purpose flour is certainly not "nutritionally empty", as many believe, but in fact is better nutritionally in some areas than whole wheat flour. The endosperm from which all-purpose flour is ground is, after all, the food source for a new wheat seedling (the germ); the bran is merely its protective coat.

Whole wheat flour contains more fiber, but by the same token, that fiber helps to "flush" a lot of whole wheat's nutrients through your body before they have a chance to be absorbed. All-purpose and whole wheat flours are comparable in many areas. It's really a toss-up as to which one you should choose, and it's based on your personal needs and the rest of your diet. Clearly, whole wheat flour's the winner in the fiber category; but much of that fiber is insoluble, meaning it provides bulk and roughage in your diet, but that's about it.

Whole wheat is also noticeably higher in potassium and phosphorus, and a bit higher in protein (though some of this is tied up in the fiber, and is therefore not nutritionally available). All-purpose flour is lower in fat and sodium. They're about equal in iron and carbohydrates.

Which should you choose? Well, if you're getting sufficient fiber, phosphorus and potassium in other parts of your diet -- we'll assume everyone's getting sufficient protein, one of the easiest nutritional elements to ingest enough of -- and if you don't like the taste of whole wheat, by all means use all-purpose flour. Ditto if you're trying to watch your fat and/or sodium intake extremely carefully. But if you really should eat more fiber every day, then use whole wheat flour.

If you like traditional whole wheat flour, then you're home free. But, if you feel that you ought to bake with whole wheat flour, and your family just doesn't like the taste, try our King Arthur 100% White Whole Wheat Flour. Because it's missing an indigestible, bitter element in the bran -- phenolic acid, related to tannins -- it's got the light taste of all-purpose flour and all the nutrition of whole wheat, a perfect marriage of flavor and health. So, next time you read or hear someone spurning "white" flour because of its nutritional shortfalls, take it with a grain of salt.

Some machines feature a whole-grain cycle. What does this mean? Generally, this cycle will knead the dough a bit longer, and give it a significantly longer rising time. If your machine doesn't have a whole-grain cycle, choose the cycle with the longest second rise or try the basic bread cycle.

The Salt...

Why do we use salt in bread? Basically, for flavor. You can certainly make bread without salt. However, salt-free bread, to most people, is about as appetizing as cardboard. Salt brings out the flavor in food, as we well know, and bread is no exception.

For those of you who don't want to use salt, remember that salt is a yeast inhibitor; salt-free bread will rise much more quickly and vigorously than bread with salt. When you eliminate salt from your recipe, you'll need to reduce the amount of yeast, and perhaps even bake bread on the "rapid-bake" cycle to keep it reined in sufficiently. Don't use salt substitutes in the bread machine -- they don't work.

The Liquids...

These include any liquid that is added to the machine, as well as anything that will become liquid when heat is added, such as shortening, margarine or butter. Typical bread machine liquids include water, milk, buttermilk, yogurt, sour cream, soft cheeses (cream cheese, cottage cheese, feta, etc.); soft fruits (applesauce and other fruit purees, bananas, etc.); liquid sweeteners; eggs, butter and vegetable oils, in either their liquid or solid forms. Relatively soft cheeses such as mozzarella, cheddar and Swiss are on the border between liquid and solid, as far as your machine is concerned; don't figure them into the flour/liquid ratio directly, but keep in mind that they'll tip that ratio a bit toward the liquid side. Hard cheeses, such as Parmesan or Romano, won't affect the flour/liquid ratio.

What do liquids do? They activate the yeast, and they combine with gluten to form the elastic strands that help bread to rise. Too little liquid, and you'll get a hard, dense, poorly risen loaf; the gluten is tough and unable to expand. Too much liquid, and you'll get a loaf that rises, then collapses; the gluten has expanded and thinned too much.

What else do liquids do? They provide flavor (cheese or maple syrup, for example); structure (eggs -- whole protein contributes to the strength of the loaf as it bakes); nutrition (dairy products and eggs) and texture and freshness (fat, which gives bread a finer, softer texture, and keeps it fresh longer). Varying the liquids in your bread machine recipes will allow you to produce very different types of bread, in both flavor and texture. This is an area where experimentation is both useful and fun.

The Additives...

By this we mean raisins, dried fruits, nuts, seeds, chocolate chips...anything that doesn't directly contribute to the structure of the bread. In order to keep these things from being shredded or mashed during the kneading cycles, add them at the end of the second kneading cycle, about 3 minutes before the machine is due to go into its first rise. This gives the machine time to knead your additions into the dough, but doesn't give it time to tear them apart. Some machines have a "raisin bread" or similar cycle, which features a "beep" when it's time to add the fruits or nuts.


Chapter 3: Learning The Basics

We hope you enjoy this beginners' exploration of bread machines, and feel confident that you can produce a good loaf of bread in your machine. Once you feel comfortable with how your machine works, begin to think about using it for all kinds of yeast baking: it's an incredibly versatile tool, if you use your imagination. We've used our bread machine to make the dough for wonderful pizza, sticky buns, kolache, bread sticks, baguettes, focaccia, doughnuts, coffee get the picture.

Helpful Hints:

Hint #1:

Don't be afraid to open your machine to look at and poke the dough as it kneads. This is the only way you'll be able to tell if the combination of ingredients you've used has made a good dough. We don't recommend poking the dough as it rises, and you shouldn't open the top when your machine is in its second rise or baking cycle, but before that, feel free to get familiar with your dough, and how your machine works with it; that's how you'll learn.

Hint #2:

If you're using your machine's delayed cycle, where the machine won't start for several hours, don't use fresh ingredients such as milk, eggs, cheese, etc. Bacteria likes to grow in these ingredients, and there's a risk of food poisoning in keeping them at room temperature.

Hint #3:

Too little yeast, your bread won't rise sufficiently; too much, and it will rise and collapse. It's important to watch your dough as it rises and bakes; dough that has risen and collapsed may look just like dough that never rose at all, once it's baked. In order to correct the problem, you need to know what went wrong.

Hint #4:

Bread that is undercooked and gummy inside is bread that didn't rise sufficiently.

Hint #5:

We've found that one or more of the following will increase the chances of your getting a successful loaf of sweet bread: doubling the amount of yeast; cutting back the amount of salt; using 1/8 teaspoon of ascorbic acid; using the longest cycle on your machine (the one with the longest rising period); or taking the dough out of the machine, and forming and baking it by hand.

Hint #6:

Match the flour to the desired result. A high-protein all-purpose or bread flour will yield high-rising bread. Whole-grain flours will yield denser, heavier, more substantial breads. A combination of flours will yield something in between.

Hint #7:

The basic ratio of salt to flour in bread is 1/2 teaspoon salt per cup of flour. Recipes that call for less salt than this may seem "blah"; try increasing the amount of salt to the recommended ratio.

Hint #8:

The basic all-purpose flour/liquid ratio is 2 1/2 to 3 cups flour to 1 1/4 cups liquid, depending on the time of year -- more flour in the summer, less in the winter.

Hint #9:

Bread that rises, then collapses in the middle as it bakes -- the infamous "crater bread" -- contains too much liquid. Adjust your formula.

Hint #10:

Adding a couple of teaspoons of flour along with the raisins/nuts helps the dough in the machine to "open up" and accept whatever you're adding more easily. If "additives" haven't kneaded into the dough by the time it goes into its first rise, simply remove the dough from the machine, scoop out the raisins/nuts, knead them in by hand, and return the dough to the machine.

Most Frequently Asked Questions:

We continue to receive inquiries regarding modifying "regular" bread recipes to work in the bread machine, and using bread machine recipes to make a "regular" loaf of bread.

A 1-pound bread machine, in general, can handle 2 to 3 cups of flour, while a 1 1/2-lb. machine can handle 3 to 4 cups of flour.

Many recipes ask for a range of flour. For example, if a recipe asks for 3 to 4 cups of flour, it is because flour changes with the weather, absorbing moisture when the humidity is high (generally, in the summer), and becoming dry when the humidity is low (usually during the winter months). To put it simply, you'll need to use more flour in the summer and less in the winter.

Q. Can I use regular bread recipes in my new bread machine?

A. Yes, you can probably use many of the same recipes you've always used. Just be sure to use a flour with a high protein content. King Arthur Unbleached All-Purpose Flour, with its high gluten, is an excellent flour for bread machines. Numerous people have told us that their recipes worked in the bread machine using King Arthur, when they didn't work with other all-purpose flours. Another tip: don't try to make whole-grain breads, such as rye or whole wheat, using only whole-grain flours. Their minimal gluten content will produce loaves which are flat and hard. Mix them with unbleached all-purpose flour for best results.
As we continue to work with the bread machines, we find that they're extremely versatile and flexible, as long as you use the manual or dough setting. It's convenient (and tempting) to take a regular 3-cup-of-flour bread recipe, throw it all in the machine, press Start, and hope you have a nicely risen loaf of baked bread 4 hours later. Well, usually this won't work; the dough is too stiff, too slack, the rising time in the machine is too short (or too long), etc. etc. etc.
Save yourself the hassle of trying to modify recipes by simply placing all of the ingredients into the machine, programming for manual or dough, then taking the dough out at the end of the cycle and proceeding with the recipe from the point where it tells you to "punch down the dough". What the machine's dough cycle gives you is a thorough knead and initial rise. From then on, you're on your own. But, hey; the mixing and kneading is the only part that takes even a modicum of effort. From then on you're just shaping the dough, putting it in a pan, and putting it in a hot oven to bake. You can do that -- honest! We find our 1 1/2-pound Zojirushi will handle up to 5 cups of flour in the dough mode.
In some respects, bread machine dough is better than hand-kneaded. Very slack doughs, those with a lot of liquid, are virtually unkneadable by hand; you always have to add more flour. In the bread machine, however, slack doughs knead very nicely, and the resulting loaf is full of coarse holes and light as a feather.
Sometimes you can take a regular bread recipe, reduce the flour to 3 cups and amend all the remaining ingredients correspondingly, make it in the bread machine, and get a good loaf on the very first attempt. But most often, you'll have several failures while you're in the trial and error process. A more fail-safe method is to just make dough, and go from there.

Q. Can I make a bread machine recipe by hand?

A. You can easily convert bread machine recipes to "manual" recipes by reading the ingredients, then combining them the way you usually do. Dissolve the yeast in the liquid, add other "wet" ingredients (e.g., eggs, honey, butter), add the flour and other dry ingredients, knead, then knead in any "extras" (raisins, nuts, chocolate chips, etc.). Let the bread rise once in the bowl, then transfer it to a pan and let it rise again. Bake for about 30 minutes in a preheated 350F oven. A bread machine recipe for a "large" machine, calling for 3 cups of all-purpose or bread flour or 4 cups of a whole-grain/all-purpose flour mix, will make a 1-lb. (8 1/2" x 4 1/2") loaf. A bread machine recipe for a "small" loaf, calling for 2 cups of all-purpose or bread flour or 3 cups of a whole-grain/all-purpose flour mix, will make a 10- to 11-ounce loaf (a 7 3/8" x 3 5/8" pan).

Q. How can I convert a 1 1/2-lb. bread machine recipe to a 1-lb. machine?

A. Your 1-lb. bread machine will probably be happy with a ratio of 2 cups flour to 1 teaspoon each yeast, sugar and salt, and 2/3 cup liquid. Let's say the bread recipe you want to use calls for 6 cups of flour (a typical two-loaf recipe). Simply divide the amount of each ingredient by three, and use one-third (6 cups flour becomes 2 cups, 1 tablespoon yeast becomes 1 teaspoon, etc.). If any of the ingredients seem way out of whack, be aware of adjustments you can make (i.e., the amount of sugar seems high, so increase the amount of yeast). This may seem complicated at first, but by keeping the ratio in mind, as well as the relationship of the ingredients to one another, you can convert just about any bread recipe to the bread machine.

Q. What qualifies as a liquid?

A. Liquids include obvious things, such as water or milk, as well as anything which becomes liquid or semi-liquid when heated. Typical bread machine liquids include water, milk, buttermilk, yogurt, sour cream, and soft cheese (cream cheese, cottage cheese, feta, etc.); soft fruits (applesauce and other fruit purees, bananas, etc.); liquid sweeteners, such as honey or molasses; eggs; butter and margarine; and vegetable oils, in either their liquid or solid form. Relatively soft cheese, such as mozzarella, grated Cheddar or Swiss, etc. are on the border between liquid and solid, as far as your machine is concerned; don't figure them into the flour/liquid ratio, but keep in mind that they'll tip that ratio a bit toward the liquid side. Hard cheeses, such as Parmesan and Romano, won't affect the flour/liquid ratio.

Q. Why did my loaf sink in the bread machine?

A. You may have used too much liquid in the dough. The dough should be smooth and soft. Or, you may need to adjust the amount of yeast; instant yeasts are stronger than active dry yeasts, so less is needed.

Q. My crust is always soft. How can I make a crispier crust?

A. If your bread machine has a french bread setting, try using that. If you reduce the oil or butter in your recipe you may get crispier results. Also, if the recipe calls for milk, try using water instead.

Q. My bread didn't rise. Why?

A. You might try using chlorine-free water. Also, check the expiration date of the yeast. If you determine that your yeast is good, make sure that you keep the yeast separate from the salt. If yeast and salt are directly on top of one another, the high concentration of salt can kill the yeast.

Q. My crust was crisp but I wanted it to be soft. What can I do?

A. You may try increasing the oil or butter in your recipe. Also, try using milk instead of water.

Q. Why do I have raw, doughy spots in my finished loaf?

A. The cycle could be too short for the recipe causing it to be baked prematurely. If that's not the case, maybe too much heat may have escaped from the bread machine as it was baking. You should never open the cover of your machine while it is on the bake cycle. Also, too many rich or heavy ingredients may cause the bread to under bake.

Q. Why do I get coarse, crumbly loaves?

A. Perhaps the dough is too dry. Try increasing the liquid if the dough appears dry during kneading. Or, your recipe may not call for enough oil in the dough.
If dry whole grains were added, which takes moisture away from the dough, try soaking the grains first.
Copyright 2001 The Baker's Catalogue, Inc.
Norwich, Vermont 05055